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Poultry Farming

A very common farm business world wide catering to the food industry is Poultry farming.In this raising of birds is done. The basic concern is to obtain meat,eggs and feathers. The birds raised commonly are chickens .About 5000 million of chickens are raised in poultry farms. Layer chickens which are raised are for egg production.Broiler chickens are those which are raised for meat. As compared to other countries USA and UK consume more meat and eggs of chicken. On average basis in UK 29 million chicken eggs everyday are consumed. Thus it is apparent how much commercial farming is significant in meeting demands of animal nutrition (eggs and meat).

Benefits of Poultry Farming


Poultry farming business is quite lucrative if one knows the nuances of it and implements efficiently. Thus many farmers prefer to invest in this business.The eggs, meat generated out of this has good marketibility and high income.No huge capital is required for starting poultry. Basic capital just does suffice and most of the poultry birds are not costly enough to be of any hinderance for start up.Poultry farming can also be undertaken in small level like in back yard with number of scoops or cages.In short time broiler chickens and other kinds of poultry birds yield much profit as they take shorter time to mature also.No great maintenance is needed and you can lessen health problems by adopting requisite hygine and supervision. In some birds of poultry the immunity is quite good like in quails turkeys and so on.In many of the cases licence is not needed since most kind of poultry animals are domestic. If at all licence is required that too is easily obtainable.Poultry yields food of high nutritious content being fresh. Global consumption of poultry yield is in demand because of this. Being affordable many people can consume it on regular basis.
To market poulty products is quite convenient. The proper market setup for poultry yield is nearly at all places. So that's not a worry or of majoconcern. The products of poultry can easily be sold in the vicinity of the area where the market is.More income is generated and employment opportunities for people. More source of income is can be there leading to further employment opportunities. Youth unemployed can easily create a great income and livelihood by commercial set up of poultry. Even women and people learning in academics do take up this profession.Many financial bodies are ready to assist for aids. Still there are quite more benefits of poultry farming with the aforesaid advantages. With undertaking them one gradually learns everything.


Various Methods of Poultry Farming

Survey of worldwatch has revealed that approximately 74% of all poultry meat along with 68% of all poultry eggs are yielded from intensive poultry farming. Free range farming the other option of intensive poultry farming. Free range farming methods is employed for great quantity of poultry birds with high stocking density.Thee is some differentiation between intensive and free range poultry farming.The method is which Intensive poultry farming is done is greatly efficient doing away with the constriction of space, and feeding issues and other issues relating to resources. The farmer completely controls the poultry farming businness. Thus incessant yield all the year irrespective of environmental factors and seasons is obtained.However some disadvantages too are there in intensive poultry farming.In some people' perspective, health,abuse and harm to the environment issues creep up.Whereas in free range poultry farming method spacious place for raising is needed and the produce nearly the same as intensive method. For health concerns certified medicines,antibiotics be given timely.


Layer Poultry Farming

The poultry birds which are raised for egg production are called layer poultry. Commercial hen generally starts laying eggs at the age of 12-20 weeks. They start laying eggs regularly at their 25 weeks of age. After 70-72 weeks of age egg production of layer poultry get reduced. For commercial layer poultry farming, producers generally keep the hens for 12 months from their first laying period. And then sell them for slaughter purpose. Although chickens naturally survive for more than 6 years. For re-invigorating egg laying, the hens are force moulted in some countries. For commercial egg laying poultry farming systems, the environmental conditions are often automatically controlled by the producers. For a simple example, presence of light helps the bird for laying eggs earlier. So, the producers should provide more lightening period to increase the probability of beginning laying eggs. The egg-laying birds lays more eggs in warmer months than the cold months. So, keeping the temperature of the room moderate will be very helpful for better egg production. Some commercial egg laying chicken breeds can produce more than 300 eggs a year. Layer poultry are raised in various methods. The common and most popular layer poultry farming systems are described shortly below.


Free Range Farming

Convenience for roaming freely is given in free range poultry for a certain part of a day.Though they are housed at night for safety and weather. For the whole day, the poultry birds roam freely in free range farming. Hence for this proper weather conditions, suitable landscape and security measures must be ensured. Less feed is required as compared to cage or barn methods.The crops directly get poultry from free rang farming.Free range farming also comes with disadvantages too like threat of predators, inhospitable weather conditions occurence, infection and so on.


Organic Method

One of the free range farming systems is organic layer poultry. The difference between the free range farming and organic methods is that large poultry birds are brought up in large numbers whereas in organic method a certain species of poultry bird are raised in lesser quantity with lesser density in stock.There are some restrictions in regular utilization of synthetic yolk colourants, water, feed,medicines other feed additives and relatively lesser group size with stocking density in lesser amount.At the most 1000 poultry birds per hector and at the most 2000 birds per house should be there in organic laying system.


Yarding Method

The raising of cows and chickens together is yarding poultry method. The raising of the Poultry birds and cattle is done together in a single fence. This is quite popular and the movement is all there within that confined area of fence.


Battery Cage Method

In many countries battery cage layer poultry rearing method is one of the very common methods.Small sized metal cages are utilized which accomodate 3 to 8 hens. Solid metal or mesh is used to make the walls of the cages and the sloped wire mesh is used of floor which allow the faeces to drop down. The eggs gather in the egg collecting conveyer belt of the cage when the hens lay eggs.The provision of food is done by a long bisected metal or plastic pipe and water is given to them by using overhead nipple systems. The cages are arranged in long rows in one above another system.Many floors may be there in a single shade in which many large number of hens even in thousands can be kept together.
The light intensity lower than 10 lux is usually recommended with concerns to feather and vent pecking. The Advantage of batter cage methods are :

  • Possibility of easy care.
  • The collection of eggs is convenient.
  • The eggs are cleaner.
  • Less feed is required to produce eggs.
  • The housing of thousands of hens may be housed in a specific floor space of the house.
  • The suffering by internal parasites is lesser.
  • Labor cost is quite low.

As with advantages there exist some disadvantages too. For chickens there is if there are overcrowded. The spaciousness is less for walking ,flapping wings, standing or perching. So frustration and boredom comes in them and behaviour changes.In some countries Battery cage system is banned due to animal welfare consideration.


Broiler Poultry Farming

For the production of meat, the poultry birds which are raised are called broiler poultry.Suitability for consumption is possible by using modern farming techniques within 5 to 6 weeks of age.However the common raising systems which are common are used for commercial broiler poultry farming.


Indoor Raising Methods

The housing of broilers is done inside. Peanut shells, wood shavings, rice hulls are used as litter for flooring. Sheltering in openness and bigger vicinity also called as growout houses help in better development of chicken which can then be consumed within 5-6 weeks.The equipping is good with mechanical means and delivery of feed and water to the poultry birds.Proper ventilation of systems, coolers and heaters are essential. It is of concern for keeping the house always dry and clean. On general basis a house of 400 feet length and 40 feet width can house approximately 20,000 birds as one half square space is required for one bird.


Free-Range Methods

The broilers are housed inside with flooring of rice hulls, wood shavings, peanut shells and so on. In this way,the sheltering of broilers is done in a large and open house (known as growout houses) and they then become ready for consuming within 5 to 6 weeks of age.Such type of poultry houses are equipped well having mechanical systems which aid in feeding and supplying water to the poultry. Airy area with cool and warm atmosphere helps a lot for the growth of birds.Dryness and cleanliness should be maintained. Generally house of 400 feet length and 40 width can shelter 20,000 birds.


Poultry Housing

Proper shelter is important is rearing all types of poultry birds.Growth of some birds and proper living in the floor of poultry house and some in cages take place. With respect to the birds suitable shelter arrangement should be done.

  • Spaciousness should be ensured. so that the birds can carry on with normal brought up. Over crowding should be avoided.
  • The space should be airy and have proper ventilation.
  • There should be proper housing and distance between one house to another.
  • The house should be cleaned and the equipment provided on regular basis.Sterilization of the house before bringing next batch of chicks should be done.
  • The chickens should be safeguarded from any kind of threat in the form of predators and others. Also it should be ensured that the temperature is regulated.
  • Drainage system inside the house for cleaning is done properly.
  • Calmness and quiet place always has its benefits. The housing guidelines for various types of poultry birds is essential.

As with advantages there exist some disadvantages too. For chickens there is if there are overcrowded. The spaciousness is less for walking ,flapping wings, standing or perching. So frustration and boredom comes in them and behaviour changes.In some countries Battery cage system is banned due to animal welfare consideration.


Feeding

Quality of nourishment freshnesss and nutrition always paves way for good health proper growth and high yield. Feeding should be of high quality and lot of consideration should go into it. There are lot of commercial poultry feeds for various breeds of birds.Along with feed high quality and nutritious feeds sufficiency in amout of fresh and clean water should be maintained.


Care & Management

Proper care should be ensured.Learning about various types diseases, signs of them and treatment methods is important. The vaccination of the birds should be done timely. Provision of nutritious feed and clean water should be done. The house should be cleaned on regular basis.


Marketing

Marketing is quite easy in poultry.Poultry products have quite a good demand all over the world.Local markets and big supermarkets are good plateform.As the poultry farming is quite common having good profitability so if you think about starting a poultry farm then educating more and more about this will make you more competent for this.